Standard Deviation
Frames Of Mind

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Gino Foti
Dave Kulju
Chris Rossi



Electrum was formed in January 1996, after guitarist Dave Kulju posted an ad on the "National Midnight Star" - then the Rush on-line digest/mailing list, looking for other musicians that were interested in playing progressive rock.

Bassist Gino Foti, who was looking to form his own band to play instrumental music, e-mailed the only reply. Meeting in person, it was apparent that both shared numerous influences, as well as a penchant for exploring unorthodox musical themes and playing odd time signatures.

Drummer Joe Musmanno joined the band in September (after Dave posted a second ad to the 'NMS') and they agreed to compose all-instrumental original material as a power trio, and to enhance the arrangements by playing keyboards and/or MIDI pedals themselves.

Gino came up with the band's name from its secondary meaning: an alloy of two or more elements that occur naturally -- implicit in meaning the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts" sound they hoped to achieve, and the eclectic style of music they wished to produce.

Adopting the Do-It-Yourself ethic in every aspect of their projects, Electrum has since recorded and released two full-length CDs to considerable success, mainly due to the strong Internet presence of instrumental and progressive rock fans, musicians, and dealers.

Standard Deviation - Electrum's second release features their eclectic blend of instrumental progressive rock and jazz fusion in seven compositions, mostly rhapsodic in form, laced with orchestral keyboard arrangements, discursive melodies, complex rhythms, abundant time signature changes, and more solo sections than its predecessor.

Frames Of Mind - Recorded less than a year after the band was completed, on only eight tracks, their debut album features nine compositions with an emphasis on rhythmic ensemble playing, concise lead/solo parts, and odd time signatures, arranged to be performed in real-time with the personnel adding synthesizers, MIDI pedals, and electronic percussion to their power trio format.

Dave Kulju died suddenly in December 2013, about a month shy of his 44th birthday. Gino and Joe decided not to produce any more music as Electrum.

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